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18 June 2007

Vampires Beyond Legend: a Bioarchaeological Approach




Anastasia Tsaliki

ABSTRACT



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Originally published in: Journal of Paleopathology (J.o.P.) 11(2) 1999: 116-117

The concept of necrophobia (i.e. fear of the dead returning to haunt the living. Greek word deriving from ‘necros’ = dead + ‘phobos’ = fear) seems to have dominated the burial customs of the Greek world since the Neolithic period to date. It can also be observed to have had a world-wide impact.

Vampirism is a form of necrophobia. Although the word ‘vampire’ most probably has a Slavic origin, debates continue as to its etymological sources. Defined narrowly, a vampire is a bloodsucking ghost or reanimated body of a dead person coming from the grave and wandering about by night, sucking the blood of the living in order to satisfy its hunger and to perpetuate its existence (Bunson 1993: 262-264). Greece has a long tradition of vampires. Examples of the Greek undead date back to the ancient world with creatures such as the Lamia and the Mormo (Δαβίας 1995: 20, 27). In Homer’s Odyssey (8th century BC) it is clearly stated that the dead like drinking blood (Σιδέρης 1984: κ 511-540, λ 23-50, 90-101). Much later, in Byzantium, Slavic influence in conjunction with the precepts of the Greek Orthodox church form the folklore legends of ‘vrykolakas’ or ‘vourvoulakas’- the undead corpse restless because of excommunication, suicide, lack of baptism, lycanthropy or witchcraft (Bunson 1993: 112-113).

Beyond legend, observations of a pathological nature in certain individuals may have led to the formation of the vampire folk belief. Palaeopathological examination of skeletal remains of suspected ‘vampires’ coming from ancient sites may shed light on the reason(s) these corpses were treated in a different way (Δαβίας 1995: 11). Forensic pathology proposes that most, if not all, of the beliefs surrounding the vampire can be explained in terms of the folk misconception of what happens to a cadaver after death. Taphonomy also plays an important role here (Barber 1998: 109-142, Uthman 1998). Finally, in the clinical pathological record, conditions producing symptoms which are similar to vampiric attributes include rabies, anthrax, photosensitivity and serious psychological disorders (Gomez-Alonso 1998, Jaffe and Dicataldo 1998, Lutwick 1998, Sledzik and Bellantoni 1994). It is obvious that vampire origins, ethnography, and behaviour take it beyond the sphere of mere human imagination.

The project presented here is part of an ambitious doctoral research programme, which investigates deviant human disposals through case studies from Greece, with an emphasis on necrophobia. Along with bibliographic research covering a variety of disciplines (archaeology, anthropology, history, folklore and ethnography), human skeletal remains are being studied macroscopically using osteological and palaeopathological methodology and epistemology.

References:

1. Barber P. (1998) Forensic Pathology and the European Vampire, in Dundes A. (ed.) The Vampire: A casebook, The University of Wisconsin Press: Wisconsin, pp. 109-142
2. Bunson M. (1993) Vampire, the Encyclopaedia, Thames and Hudson: London
3. Gomez-Alonso J. (1998) Rabies: A possible explanation for the Vampire Legend, Neurology 51 (3): 856-859
4. Jaffe P. D. and Dicataldo F. (1998) Clinical Vampirism: Blending Myth and Reality, in Dundes A. (ed.) The Vampire: A casebook, The University of Wisconsin Press: Wisconsin, pp. 143-158
5. Lutwick L. I. (1998) G-Docs and X-files, Infect Med 115 (3): 165-167, 210
6. Sledzic P. and Bellantoni N. (1994) Brief Communication: Bioarchaeological and Biocultural Evidence for the New England Vampire Folk Belief, AJPA 94: 269-274
7. Uthman Ed (1998) Forensic Pathology, URL: wysiwyg://37/http://www.neosoft.com/~uthman/forensic_pathology.html, Date visited: 21 June 2000
8. Δαβίας Ο. (ed.) (1995) Μόνταγκ Σάμμερς: Ο Ελλην Βρυκόλαξ, εκδ. Δελφίνι: Αθήνα
9. Σιδέρης Ζ. (μτφρ.) (1984) Ομήρου Οδύσσεια, ΟΕΔΒ: Αθήνα


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PAPER


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This paper was originally published in and should be referenced as:

Tsaliki A. (2001) Vampires Beyond Legend: A Bioarchaeological Approach. In M. La Verghetta and L. Capasso (eds.), Proceedings of the XIII European Meeting of the Paleopathology Association, Chieti, Italy, 18-23 Sept. 2000, Edigrafital S.p.A: Teramo- Italy, 295-300.


‘VAMPIRES BEYOND LEGEND: A BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL APPROACH’

Anastasia Tsaliki

The concept of necrophobia (i.e. fear of the dead returning to haunt the living. A Greek word deriving from ‘necros’ = dead + ‘phovos’ = fear) seems to have dominated the burial customs of the Greek world since the Neolithic period to date. It can also be observed to have had a world-wide impact. Vampirism is a form of necrophobia.

The nature of vampire and of its Greek species vrykolakas is examined, as they appear in folk beliefs, especially in Greece and the Balkan area. Theories of a possible realistic explanation of the vampire lore are put forward, deriving mainly from the disciplines of clinical and forensic pathology. Finally, cases of ‘vampiric’ fear in the archaeological record are described.

The project presented here is part of the author’s doctoral research programme entitled ‘An investigation of extraordinary human body disposals, with special reference to necrophobia’. This research is multidisciplinary, mainly based on the principles and methodology of Archaeology and Bioanthropology.

This paper is limited to the investigation of the vampire lore and reality. A thorough bibliographic research has been performed including folklore, literary and medical texts.


The Vampire folklore

The word ‘vampire’ (less commonly ‘vampir’, ‘vampyre’) most probably has a Slavic origin, but debates continue as to its etymological sources: Turkish, Greek and Hungarian roots are the alternatives (Bunson 1993).

Defined narrowly, a vampire is a reanimated corpse coming from the grave, wandering about by night and sucking the blood of the living in order to satisfy its hunger and to perpetuate its existence. There are many theories regarding the origin of this revenant (= ‘returning from the dead’) creature. Bloodsuckers, divine or semidivine, were an integral part of many ancient cults in both the Old and New World. Among the best examples is Kali in India, Zotzilaha (Bat-god in the Mayans) and the God Huitzilopochtli in the Aztecs. In the latter cases the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) may have been an influence. Blood, a living force, and earth, the giver of life and food were strongly linked (Bunson 1993, Davias 1995).




In a broader sense, the word 'vampire' or 'undead' or 'revenant' is used for the reanimated corpse by a demon, who seeks to hurt the living. It does not necessarily drink blood but can feed on other liquids such as milk or oil, or solid food. The vampire belief is expanded in many countries all over the world and there are many different vampiric species. Vampires are said to be able to transform into bats, birds, rats, wolves, flies and fleas. As was the case with witchcraft, the Christian church related the vampires with the devil (as above, and Politis 1904).

Greece has a long tradition of vampires. Examples of the Greek undead date back to the ancient world with creatures such as the Efialtae, the Striges, the Lamiae, the Empoussai, the Epopidae, the Yello and the Mormo. In Homer’s Odyssey (8th century BC) it is clearly stated that the dead like drinking blood (Davias 1995). There also existed special festivals in the honor of the dead, the Anthesteria, and in Roman times the Lemuria. Later, under the Christian influence and the curse of excommunication (in the Greek Church it involves cursing the body not to dissolve), various regional words were applied to the revenant corpses, as the word vampire was still unknown. Therefore, several studies prove that rich autochthonous traditions on the undead existed long ago (Politis 1904). In Byzantium, Slavic influence, in conjunction with the precepts of the Greek Orthodox Church, form the legend of a Greek vampire species called ‘vrykolakas’, the Slavic word for werewolf. The word became directly associated with vampires out of the belief that all werewolves would be vampires after death (Bunson 1993, Davias 1995). The presence of vampires also exists in Medieval Greek texts, novels, manuscripts, ecclesiastic laws, exorcisms, and folk songs (Mouzakis 1989).


Vampires Beyond Legend

Beyond legend, observations of a pathological nature in certain individuals may have led, or at least contributed, to the formation of the vampire folk belief. In order to understand the explanations put forward, a review of some basic traits associated with vampires is necessary:

• Predispositions to become a vampire: curse, excommunication, death without baptism, red hair, death by suicide, witchcraft, immoral life, lycanthropy, killed by a vampire, no burial or improper burial rites, violent death, unrevenged murder, death by drowning, heresy, physical disability.
• Means of destroying vampires: staking, beheading, cremation, piercing the bloated corpse, extracting the heart / liver /intestines, cutting into pieces, touching with an icon and/or holy water.
• Means of preventing the ‘turning’ to a vampire: proper burial, mutilate the corpse, pounding nails into various body parts, putting sickles, daggers, knives, stakes, nails, thorns in the coffin to prevent bloating (thus transformation), bind the corpse, decapitation and placing of the head between the legs.
• Features associated with vampires: holes near the grave, disturbed grave, corpse bloated, with open eyes, long hair and nails, skin colour change, pallor, lack of decomposition, blood around the mouth, open mouth, adherence to the sacraments, fear and incapability of passing across water. A possible victim has red eyes, paleness, aversion to bright light, no appetite, weight loss, insomnia, nightmares, anaemia, exhaustion, difficulty in breathing, nervousness and irritability, blood coughing.
(Bunson 1993, Mouzakis 1989)


FORENSIC PATHOLOGY (FP) deals with the postmortem investigation of sudden and unexpected death. It is therefore possible to determine the cause of death, its mechanisms and manners, and especially the normal postmortem changes (Uthman 1998). FP proposes that most, if not all, of the beliefs surrounding the vampire can be explained in terms of the folk misconception of what happens to a cadaver after death. The ‘intact, bloated, fat, pale or reddish corpse’, the blood at the lips and nose, the noises heard from the grave, are all signs of decomposition. It can be a longer process than people may think and rigor mortis is a temporary condition, not a permanent one. Both may cause some sudden movement of the body. Against the popular belief that the nails and hair keep growing after death, this is a misconception of the fact that the skin shrinks back. The process of decomposition generates heat, so the corpse may appear warm. The swelling of the body, which sometimes is extreme, is mainly the reason why the corpse is pinned, tied or weighed down in its grave, and the vampire is often killed by piercing. The revenant cannot cross the water because, due to extreme swelling, the body will emerge and float (Barber 1998).

TAPHONOMY also plays an important role here. Quick and shallow burials, often in the case of criminals, murder victims and suicides, and in periods of epidemics, led to the body becoming partly uncovered during the swelling phase of decomposition. The improper cemetery geomorphology together with quickly successive burials and crowded conditions lead to lack of water and oxygen coming in contact with the corpse, delaying its decay. In addition, the high use of drugs and the synthetic fabrics used in clothes inhibit normal decomposition (Mouzakis 1989).

Finally, in the CLINICAL PATHOLOGICAL RECORD, several conditions produce symptoms, which are similar to vampiric attributes. These include:

• Tuberculosis: Very contagious ‘crowd disease’. Pulmonary TB causes fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight, and persistent cough with blood-spotted sputum.
• Other respiratory diseases, e.g. Bronchitis, Pneumoconiosis, and Anthracosis (a common pneumoconiosis. Chronic lung disease from repeated inhalation of coal dust).
• Anthrax: Caused by Bacillus anthracis, by inhaling field dust or by penetrating the skin. Symptoms: fatigue, muscle aches, cough, low fever, dyspnoea, and tachycardia. It is an occupational disease of animal handlers, acute and commonly fatal, as it causes bronchopneumonia and septicaemia.
(Lutwick 1998, Roberts and Manchester 1997, Youngson 1992)
• Rabies in humans: loss of appetite, fever and fatigue, insomnia, tendency to wander, dementia, muscle spasms, aggression, violence, biting attacks, agitation, blood vomiting. Bright light, water, strong odours, and mirrors can trigger spasms. Death from rabies can leave blood in a liquid state long after death (Gomez-Alonso 1998).
• Photophobia: Intolerance to light. Feature of certain eye disorders, migraine and meningitis.
Porphyria: a group of inherited disorders causing extreme sensitivity to sunlight, sweating, tachycardia, abdominal pain, vomiting, skin blistering, scarring on exposure to sunlight, and psychotic disorders.
• Photosensitivity: skin rash due to sunlight, drugs or other chemicals.
• Necrophania (= apparent death), leading to premature burial.
• Psychological / mental disorders: A serious, although rare mental disorder is ‘clinical vampirism’, a penchant of disturbed patients to drink blood, sometimes their own; the activity is then termed ‘autovampirism’. It groups some of the most shocking pathologic behaviors observed in humans: necrophagism /cannibalism, necrophilia and necrosadism. Clinical vampirism manifestations blend myth and reality in a dramatic fashion and contain a mixture of nosological elements, including schizophrenia, phychopathy, perversion, paranoia and borderline personality.
(Jaffe and Dicataldo 1998, Mouzakis 1989, Youngson 1992)

Vampires were believed to attack close family first, at night. Thinking of contagious diseases, it is easier to understand why close relatives are at high risk. In addition, there have been a number of clinical vampires registered through history, since the 15th century (Bunson 1993).


The Vampire in the archaeological record

The concept of this project was formed in 1995 while reading an article on the New England Vampire Folk Belief (Sledzik and Bellantoni 1994). When the tomb of a 19th c. individual, thought to be a vampire, was opened and the femora were found crossed on top of the thorax, the researchers combined archaeological, cultural and historical evidence with osteological and palaeopathological examination in order to interpret this extraordinary case. The periostitic rib lesions of the skeleton may be associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. As the name ‘consumption’ implies, tuberculosis causes sufferers to ‘waste away’ and ‘lose flesh’ despite their desire to live. The vampire legend became reality: from the sphere of folk belief it passed to the archaeological record with hard evidence.

Some of the earliest probable examples of fear of the ‘revenants’ come from Neolithic and Chalcolithic Cyprus (circa 7000-2500 BC). Individuals were often buried in a small shallow pit, in a contracted position with the knees bent against the chest. A quern or slabs, or multiple smaller rocks, were put on the chest or on the head to prevent the dead from returning and harming the living. The wedging of the head with lumps of pisé (construction material) or pebbles has been recorded, as well as possible cases of decapitation. Similar practises have been performed in the Levant, such as the separation of the skull and its public display (Karageorghis 1965). A similar custom is seen in a Middle Helladic grave from the Argolid (Greece, circa 1900-1600 BC): a large rock is placed over the flexed skeleton in a stone-built cist-grave (Nordquist 1990). A rock is present on the body of an infant skeleton from Soba, Sudan, 6th-13th centuries AD according to Filer (1995).


In Greece, a case from Byzantine Chalkidiki is that of a small individual found in situ with a big bronze wedge nailed into the forehead. On the island of Mytilene, in a Turkish cemetery from the period of the Ottoman occupation (circa 18th-19th c.), the Greek and Canadian teams found the somewhat isolated tomb of an adult. The individual was nailed at the neck, the pelvis and the tali with 20 cm nails. This case is of particular interest, as vampirism is not a common belief among Muslims (Davias 1995). Finally, during salvage excavations at the castle of Lamia, the skull of a skeleton was nailed with three big iron nails. Two more nails were found around the shoulder area (Papakonstantinou-Katsouni 1995). In all the above cases there has been Pers. Comm. with the excavators, and the osteoarchaeological study is not complete yet.

Conclusions

The cultural analysis of vampires, and especially their Greek form, stresses the antiquity of the phenomenon and the plethora of literary evidence. It is obvious that necrophobia leading to deviant burials does exist in Greece and can be examined from both an archaeological and bioanthropological perspective. The contributions to a rational explanation of vampirism, vampire origins, ethnography, and behaviour, obviously take it beyond the sphere of mere human imagination.

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the many Greek Archaeological Eforiae, Prof. H. Williams, and all those who contributed with information and permissions for study of ‘vampire’ funerary cases. Finally, I also thank the Bioanthropology Foundation, the P. Bakala Bros. Foundation and the Durham University ‘Dean’s Fund’ for financial support.


References

1. Barber P. (1998) Forensic Pathology and the European Vampire, in Dundes A. (ed.) The Vampire: A casebook, The University of Wisconsin Press: Wisconsin, pp. 109-142
2. Bunson M. (1993) Vampire, the Encyclopaedia, Thames and Hudson: London
3. Davias O. (ed.) (1995) Montague Summers: O Ellin Vrykolax, ekd. Delfini: Athina
4. Filer J. (1995) Disease, Trustees of the British Museum: London
5. Gomez-Alonso J (1998) Rabies: a Possible Explanation for the Vampire Legend, Neurology 51: 856-859.
6. Jaffe P. D. and Dicataldo F. (1998) Clinical Vampirism: Blending Myth and Reality, in Dundes A. (ed.) The Vampire: A casebook, The University of Wisconsin Press: Wisconsin, pp. 143-158
7. Karageorghis V. (1982) Cyprus, from the Stone Age to the Romans, Thames and Hudson: London
8. Lutwick L. I. (1998) G-Docs and X-files, Infect Med 115(3): 165-167, 210
9. Mouzakis S. (1989) Oi Vrykolakes stous Vyzantinous kai Metavyzantinous Nomokanones kai stis paradoseis tou Ellinikou laou, Vivliopoleio twn Vivliofilwn: Athina
10. Nordquist G. C. (1990) Middle Helladic Burial Rites: Some speculations, in Hagg R. and Nordquist G.C. (eds.) Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid, Acta Instituti Atheniensis regni Sueciae Series 4, XL, pp. 35-43
11. Papakonstantinou-Katsouni M. (1995), Kastro Lamias, ID’ EPKA, Anatypo, Arxaiologikon Deltion 44 (1989), Xronika, Athina, pp. 164-165
12. Politis N. (1904) Paradoseis, Tomos A’, Athina, pp. 491-506, 573-608
13. Roberts C. A. and Manchester K. (1997) The Archaeology of disease (2nd ed.), Sutton publishing ltd.: Ithaca- New York
14. Sledzic P. and Bellantoni N. (1994) Brief Communication: Bioarchaeological and Biocultural Evidence for the New England Vampire Folk Belief, American Journal of Phys. Anthropology 94: 269-274
15. Uthman E. (1998) Forensic Pathology, URL: wysiwyg://37/http://www.neosoft.com/~uthman/forensic_pathology.htm, Date visited: 21 June 2000
16. Youngson R. M. (1992) Collins Dictionary of Medicine, Harper Collins Publishers: Glasgow


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13 June 2007

Four Chamber Tombs at Audemou-Kamares, Cyprus (ca. 2000-1700 BC) - Preliminary Osteological Analysis



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This paper was published originally in the "Ancient Cyprus Web Project" and should be referenced as:


L. Karali and A. Tsaliki (2001) Four Chamber Tombs at Audemou-Kamares, Cyprus (ca. 2000-1700 BC) - Preliminary Osteological Analysis, Ancient Cyprus Web Project, Web document: http://www.ancientcyprus.ac.uk/papers/audemouosteo.asp





Four Chamber Tombs at Audemou-Kamares, Cyprus

(c. 2000-1700 BC)

Preliminary Osteological Analysis

 

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The four chamber tombs contained rich assemblages of both human and animal remains. The preliminary results are presented here. Further osteological analysis, interpretation, and comparison with other sites are forthcoming at the RDAC (Report of Antiquities of Cyprus) journal.
Methodology: Based on the excavation data, we concluded that the bones had been recovered according to their taphonomic scattering. Therefore, their in situ position is of no ritual burial value. The identification of human and animal bones has been painstaking as the fragments reached high numbers (tens of hundreds). The bones were studied macro- and micro- scopically (Bass 1995, Brothwell 1981, Hillson 1992, Schmid 1972, White 1991). Two small bags with grave filling have also been thoroughly examined (from Tombs 16 and 17).
Results: The grave filling consisted of soil sediment, roots, tiny bone, tooth, shell, and pottery fragments, insect remains, charcoal, seeds, and a bead from T 17. The bones from all the tombs were heavily damaged and fragmented due to taphonomic conditions and modern human handling. They were covered by sediments and/or bore signs of weathering and/or animal scavenging.
1. Human remains:
¨ Tomb 14: MNI = 1 adult Female (?). The bones of the cranial vault were heavy, with thickened diploe and mild porotic hyperostosis.
¨ Tomb 15: MNI= 2 => 1 younger and 1 older adult. One lumbar vertebra showed marked osteophytosis and a large Schmorl’s node. Osteochondritis dissecans has been observed on a patella.
¨ Tomb 16: MNI = 2 => 1 young gracile adult aged 18-22 years-old (based on the femoral head and  the lesser trochanter fusion) and 1 child aged approx. 9 years-old (based on the estimated length of the incomplete left radius, and on the morphology of the development of the root and on the attrition of a permanent 2nd left mandibular premolar).
¨ Tomb 17: MNI = 4 => 1 adult Male, 1 young adult aged 23-35 years-old (Suchey and Brooks method), 1 gracile adult, another adult (based on the epiphyseal unions of long bones), and 1 child of approx. 5 years of age (based on the estimated length and the morphology of the incomplete left femur and humerus). Squatting facets from dorsiflexion were observed on an adult calcaneus, and one metacarpal shows active periostitis with new bone addition.
2. Animal Remains: Bone and teeth fragments revealed the presence of: Lepus (hare), Mus (mouse), Sus (pig), Equus (horse), Bos (cow), Avis (bird) - Gallus (chicken) has been positively identified -, Ovis / Capra (Sheep/ Goat). Possible presence of Cervidae. Two crab claws (Carcinus sp.) were found in Tomb 16. Cut marks on bones were recorded and absence of or separately found animal epiphyses confirm the killing of subadult individuals. The above mentioned animal species were common to almost all tombs. Some animals were scavengers, trapped in the tombs accidentally. The bones found represent all parts of the animal (i.e. skull, main body, and limbs). Number of individuals, sexing, more specific ageing, and metrical analysis could not be applied due to the high fragmentation of the bones. From T 15 three small pieces (approx. 1 x 2 - 2.5 cm) of worked bone bearing circular symmetrical motifs have been recovered.
Conclusions: Many bones from all tombs bore gray spotting, probably from contact with ash and/or burnt grave offerings. The highly weathered surface of the bones made observation and identification difficult, as in the majority of cases the diagnostic morphological markers were erased or altered. Erosion also prohibits secure diagnosis of pathological conditions on the bones, as it may have produced cases of “pseudo pathology”.

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Bibliography:
¨ Bass, W.M. (1995) Human Osteology: A Laboratory And Field Manual (4th ed.), Missouri
¨ Brothwell, D.R. (1981) Digging up Bones (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford
¨ Brooks, S. and Suchey, J.M. (1990) Skeletal age determination based on the Os Pubis: a comparison of the Ascadi -Nemeskeri and Suchey-Brooks methods, Human Evolution 5: 227-238
¨ Hillson, S. (1992) Mammal Bone and Teeth: An Introductory Guide to Methods of Identification, London
¨ Schmid, E. (1972) Atlas of Animal Bones, Amsterdam- London - New York
¨ White, T. (1991) Human Osteology, New York

The above text was part of the Poster Presentation:

Manginis G., Karali L., Tsaliki A., and Vavouranakis G. (2001) An Interdisciplinary Approach Towards Burial Practices in Prehistoric Bronze Age Cyprus: Artifactual and Osteological Material from Audemou-Kamares. Poster presented at the 3rd BABAO Annual Conference, Durham University, 14-15 July 2001.

ABSTRACT

This joint study programme integrates a wider interpretative scope with analytical methods. It aims to reach a better understanding of burial practices in Prehistoric Cyprus than the usual rescue excavation reports, mainly providing descriptive typologies, and scarce osteological studies, often in isolation with each other. In 1994, the Department of Antiquities in Cyprus excavated four chamber tombs at Audemou-Kamares, a cemetery dating to the Prehistoric Bronze Age (PreBA) 2 (c. 2000-1700). Despite the disturbed context, the finds provide a rich repertoire of storage, serving and consuming vessels. Nonetheless, the potential of such an assemblage can only be enabled if complemented with the osteological analysis.
The individuals identified reach a minimum number of nine: seven adults (both males and females) and two young subadults. They are accompanied by various animal species (eg. Bos, Equus, Ovis, Capra, Mus, Lepus, Avis), some in ritual relation with the dead, bearing cut marks as well, and some being taphonomic intruders. An integrated approach will show how the dead, the artifacts, and the ecofacts should be studied in close relation to each other. In particular, human remains and animal bones can indicate how the artifacts operated in functional as well as wider social and symbolic contexts.

The final publication of the material can be found (in Greek) at:

Vavouranakis G., Karali L., Manginis G., and Tsaliki A. (2004) The tombs at the site Audemou-Kamares: the contribution of salvage excavation in the understanding of material culture and of historical-social acts in Prehistoric Cyprus (in Greek with English abstract), Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus (2004): 149-168.

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